To Kill to Mockingbird is a Harper Lee novel published in 1960. Instantly successful, widely read in high schools and middle schools in the United States, it has become a classic of modern American literature, winning the Pulitzer Prize. The plot and characters are loosely based on an incident that took place in 1936 near his family, his neighbors, and the 1936 hometown of Monroeville, Alabama.
The novel is noted for its warmth and humor despite dealing with serious issues of rape and racial inequality. The narrator’s father, Atticus Finch, has served as a moral hero for many readers and as a model of honesty for lawyers. Historian, j. Crispino explains, “In the twentieth century, To Kill a Mockingbird is probably the most read book dealing with race in America, and its main character, Atticus Finch, is the most enduring fictional image of racial heroism.”
As a Southern Gothic and Baldungsroman novel, To Kill a Mockingbird’s primary themes include racial injustice and destruction of innocence. Scholars have noted that Lee also addresses issues of class, courage, compassion and gender roles in the American Deep South. The book is widely taught in schools in the United States with an emphasis on tolerance and reducing bias. Despite its themes, To Kill a Mockingbird has been subject to a campaign to remove it from public classrooms, often challenged for the use of racial themes.
The novel’s wide-ranging reaction upon publication. Despite the number of copies sold and its widespread use in education, its literary analysis is sparse. Author Mary McDonough Murphy, who collected personal impressions of To Kill a Mockingbird by many authors and public figures, calls the book “a surprise event”. In 2006, British librarians placed the book next to the Bible as one, “Every adult should read before dying”. It was adapted into an Academy Award-winning film by director Robert Mulligan in 1962, starring Horton Foote. Since 1990, a play based on the novel has been performed every year in Harper Lee’s hometown.
Kill to a Mockingbird was Lee’s only published book, Go Set a Watchman, until an earlier draft of To Kill a Mockingbird was published on 14 July 2015. Lee continued to respond to the impact of his work until his death in February 2016, although he had since 1964 refused any personal publicity for himself or for the novel.
Biographical background and publication
Born in 1926, Harper Lee was born in the southern city of Monroeville, Alabama, where he soon became close friends with the famous writer Truman Capote. She studied at Huntingdon College in Montgomery (1944–45), and then studied law at the University of Alabama (1945–49). While attending college, he wrote for campus literary magazines: Huntress in Huntingdon and the comic magazine Rammer Jammer at the University of Alabama. In both colleges, he wrote short stories and other compositions about racial injustice, which were rarely mentioned topics on such campuses at the time. In 1950, Lee moved to New York City, where he worked as a reservation clerk for the British Overseas Airways Corporation; There, he began writing a collection of essays and short stories about people in Monroeville. Hoping to be published, Lee submitted his writing to a literary agent recommended by Capote in 1957. An editor at J. B. Lippincott, who bought the manuscript, advised him to leave the airline and concentrate on writing.
Friends’ donations allowed her to write seamlessly for a year. After finishing the first draft and returning it to Lippincott, the manuscript, titled “Go Set a Watchman” at that point, fell into the hands of Theres von Hohof Torre, professionally named by Tai Hohoff. Was known as Hohof was impressed, ” he said that every line sparked the true author’s spark,” he would later read in Lippincott’s corporate history, but as Hohoff observed, the manuscript was not suitable for publication. As she described, “a series of anecdotes compared to a fully fictional novel.” During the following two-and-a-half years, he moved Lee from one draft to the next, until the book finally achieved its full form.
After the title “Watchman” was rejected, it was re-titled, but Lee renamed it Kill to Kill a Mockingbird to reflect that the story is beyond a character picture. This book was published on 11 July 1960. Lippincott’s editorial team warned Lee that he would probably sell only several thousand copies. In 1964, Lee recalled his hopes for the book when he said,
I never expected any kind of success with ‘Mockingbird’. … I was expecting a quick and merciful death at the hands of the reviewers, but at the same time, I hope someone would like to encourage me. Public encouragement. I expected a little as I said, but I got the whole lot, and in some ways it was just as horrific, as quick as I expected of a merciful death.
To Kill a Mockingbird Novel by Harper Lee Book
Name Of the Book: To Kill to Mockingbird
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